Émile Théodore Léon Gautier (8 August 1832 - 25 August 1897) was a French literary historian.
He was born at Le Havre, France. He was educated at the École des Chartes, and became successively head of the archives of the département of Haute-Marne and archivist at the Imperial Archives at Paris. In 1871 he became professor of palaeography at the École des Chartes. He was elected member of the Academy of Inscriptions in 1887, and became chief of the historical section of the National Archives in 1893.
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